European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
An agency of the European Union
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), as of 13 December 2022, there have been 142 confirmed cases of SVD, of which 55 died (CFR: 39%), and 87 recovered. In addition, 22 deaths among probable cases have been reported in individuals who died before a sample was taken. At least 19 healthcare workers have been infected and seven of them died.
Currently there are six contacts actively being followed up in Kassanda.
The last reported case was a stillborn 32-week-old male delivered on 27 November 2022 to a woman who survived SVD late in her pregnancy. This case was confirmed after a period of 13 days with no confirmed cases.
As of 5 December 2022, there are 36 active contacts under follow up across four districts, with a follow up rate of 100%. A total of 4 754 contacts of cases have been identified across 15 districts.
Overall, there have been nine Ugandan districts affected by this outbreak: Bunyangabu, Jinja, Kagadi, Kampala, Kassanda, Kyegegwa, Masaka, Mubende, and Wakiso. Bunyangabu, Kagadi, Kyegegwa and Masaka have completed two incubation cycles of the virus without reporting any cases.
On 20 September 2022, the Ministry of Health in Uganda, together with WHO AFRO, confirmed an outbreak of SVD in Mubende District, Uganda, after one fatal case was confirmed.
The index case was a 24-year-old man, a resident of Ngabano village of the Madudu sub-county in Mubende District. The patient experienced high fever, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and began vomiting blood on 11 September 2022. Samples were collected on 17 September 2022 and SVD was laboratory-confirmed on 19 September. The patient died on the same day, five days after hospitalisation.
On 15 October 2022, the President of Uganda imposed a 21-day lockdown on the Mubende and Kassanda districts to contain the outbreak. Measures included an overnight curfew, closing places of worship and entertainment, and restricting movement in and out of the two districts. These measures were extended on 5 November 2022 and again on 26 November, until 17 December 2022.
The Ugandan government is carrying out community-based surveillance and active case finding. An on-site mobile laboratory has been established in Mubende and risk communication activities are ongoing in all affected districts. Africa CDC, WHO, GOARN and other partners have teams in Uganda to support the coordination of the response.
As of 16 November 2022, all travellers leaving or arriving at Entebbe International Airport in Uganda are required to complete a health declaration form.
On 8 December 2020, the Ministry of Health of Uganda announced that 1 200 doses of vaccine have arrived in the country which will be used in the Tokomeza Ebola vaccine trial. This is the first batch of one of three vaccine candidates. According to the Sabin Vaccine Institute, the doses that have arrived are Sabin’s vaccine and they will make another 8 500 doses available to WHO on a rolling basis through January.
SVD outbreaks have previously occurred in Uganda (four outbreaks) and Sudan (three outbreaks). The last SVD outbreak in Uganda was in 2012.
Despite the increase in number of cases and the transmissions reported in the densely populated capital city of Kampala, the current probability that EU/EEA citizens living in or travelling to EVD-affected areas of Uganda will be exposed to the virus is very low, provided that they adhere to the recommended precautionary measures (see further information below). Transmission requires direct contact with blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of dead or living infected people or animals; all unlikely exposures for the general EU/EEA tourists or expatriates in Uganda.
Considering that infection with Sudan ebolavirus leads to severe disease but that the probability of exposure of EU/EEA citizens is very low, the impact for the EU/EEA citizens living and travelling in affected areas in Uganda is considered low. Overall, the current risk for EU/EEA citizens living or travelling to affected areas in Uganda is considered low.
The most likely route by which the Ebola virus could be introduced to the EU/EEA is through infected people from affected areas travelling to the EU/EEA or medical evacuation of cases to the EU/EEA. According to the International Air Travel Association, in 2019, there were about 126,000 travellers arriving in the EU/EEA from Uganda. Based on experience from the largest EVD outbreak in West Africa to date (2013-2016), where thousands of cases were reported, with transmission in large urban centres, and hundreds of EU/EEA humanitarian and military personnel deployed to the affected areas, importation of cases by travellers is considered unlikely.
The likelihood of secondary transmission of Ebola virus within the EU/EEA and the implementation of sustained chains of transmission within the EU/EEA is very low as cases are likely to be promptly identified and isolated and follow up control measures are likely to be implemented. During the large EVD outbreak in West Africa in 2013–2016, there was only one local transmission in the EU/EEA (in Spain) in a healthcare worker who had attended to an evacuated EVD patient. The impact for the EU/EEA citizens living in the EU/EEA is considered low and overall, the current risk for the citizens in the EU/EEA is considered very low.
Healthcare providers in the EU/EEA should be informed of and sensitised to:
The licensed vaccines available, protect against EVD due to Zaire ebolavirus. There are no licensed vaccines against EVD due to Sudan ebolavirus, and there are no available data on the level of cross-protections. The availability of a vaccine was proven to be very helpful in the control of the recent outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The unavailability of vaccines will be an additional challenge in the control of this outbreak.
ECDC is monitoring this situation through its epidemic intelligence activities and will report relevant updates on a weekly basis.
Disclaimer: This figure is based on the latest available data from different public official sources. Updates are not always available on a daily basis. In addition, please note that there is a delay between the date of disease onset, the date of detection and the date of reporting, resulting in a reporting lag. This should be taken into consideration when interpreting these figures.
Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fevers are rare diseases but have the potential to cause high death rates.
Prevention and control measures for Ebola virus disease
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